Spiritual Non-Fiction posted April 19, 2022 Chapters:  ...33 34 -35- 36... 

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Modified Convential Chronology Of United Monarchy

A chapter in the book Sea Of Galilee

Sea Of Galilee #35

by Brett Matthew West

Do you know five structural differences between the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible?

Hebrew Bible:

Torah (Law)


Ketuvim (Wisdom, Poetry, Writings)


Megillot (Five Scrolls)

Song of Songs

Nevi' im (Prophets and God's covenant relationship)

12 Minor Prophets*****

*Old Testament seperates these into Ezra and Nehemiah

**Old Testament seperates into 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles

***Old Testament seperates into 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel

****Old Testament seperates into 1 Kings and 2 Kings

*****Old Testament allows each Minor Prophet their own book while the Hebrew Bible groups them into 1 book


Israeli archaeologist Amihai Mazar proposed the Modified Conventional Chronology, that placed the start of the Iron IIA Period in the early-10th Century BC and its end somewhere in the middle of the 9th Century BC. The most widely accepted Israeli Chronology during the Iron Age Period.

Mazar is a Professor at the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is also the Chair of the Archaeology of Israel. Mazar was the first Israeli archaeologist to use radiocarbon dating in Mediterranean and Levantine site excavations.

Of curious note, Mazar found thirty intact beehives that dated to about 9000BC, when Jerusalem had a population close to 2,000 inhabitants. Made of straw and unbaked clay, these beehives are believed to be the oldest complete beehives ever discovered.

Issues with Finkelstein's Low Chronology of the United Monarchy (as detailed in the previous chapter, Sea Of Galilee #34) include:

-Amelie Kuhrt, of the University of London; a Historian who specializes in the history of the Ancient Near East, especially the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Seleucid Empires. She
acknowledged, "There are no royal inscriptions from the time of the United Monarchy, indeed very little written material altogether, and not a single contemporary reference to either David or Solomon. Against this must be set the evidence for substantial development and growth at several sites, which is plausibly related to the 10th Century BC."

-Kenneth Kitchen, of the University of Liverpool; a biblical scholar, Near East Historian, and Professor Emeritus of Egyptology, who is regarded as "the very architect of Egyptian chronology". He specializes in the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt (the 1000sBC timeframe). Kitchen concluded, "The physical archaeology of 10th Century BC Canaan is consistent with the former existence of a unified state on its territory."

Eilat Mazar is an Israeli archaeologist who specializes in Jerusalem and Phoenician archaeology. On August 4, 2005, Mazar discovered in Jerusalem what may have been the palace of King David. This structure is known as the Large Stone Structure. It contained:

-a public building
-a copper scroll
-a clay bulla (a seal used in commercial and legal documentation for authentication)
-an inscribed seal of Jehucal (he is mentioned in Jeremiah Chapter 37 and Chapter 38)
-a seal of Gedaliah ben Pashhur (also mentioned in Jeremiah chapter 37 and Chapter 38)

Eilat Mazar believed the building to be the Fortress of Zion that David captured.

Excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa, overlooking the Elah Valley in Judah, where David fought Goliath, found an urbanized settlement radiocarbon dated to the 10th Century BC.

In 2010, Mazar discovered part of the ancient city walls around the City of David (the oldest section of Jerusalem). Mazar stated this about his find, "It's the most significant construction we have from First Temple days in Israel and it means that at that time, the 10th Century BC in Jerusalem, there was a regime capable of carrying out such construction."

Other significant discoveries Eilat Mazar has found include:

-Nehemiah's wall
-Solomon's gate and tower
-the Ophel inscription on a large storage jar near the Temple Mount
-a stash of gold at the foot of the Temple Mount with an etched menorah, torah, and shofar (a ram's horn musical instrument used for religious purposes)
-the bulla of Isaiah
-Hezekiah's bulla that reads "Belonging to Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah" that dates to about 727BC to 698BC

She stated this about that bulla, "Perhaps the first time a seal impression of an Israelite or Judean king has ever come to light in a scientific archaeological excavation."

All of these tend to support the biblical High Chronology of the United Monarchy.



Next Time: Sea Of Galilee #36: Jebusites - The Pre-Israelite Inhabitants Of Jerusalem

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